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Neuromuscular block agents are frequently used because of the potential for harm if a patient moves with sinus instrumentation in place generic 400 mg ibuprofen with mastercard. Extubation and emergence priorities include decreasing coughing and gagging purchase 400mg ibuprofen otc, which can increase postop- erative bleeding because of increased venous pressure purchase genuine ibuprofen on-line. If a posterior pharyngeal pack has been placed to reduce aspiration of blood, it is critical for all packing material to be removed before extubation. Attention to possible comorbid conditions is important, which include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes. These patients can have altered airway anatomy caused by pathology or the effects of treatment such as radiation therapy, and consideration of awake intubation, fiberoptic intubation, induction with spontaneous ventilation, and preoperative tracheostomy may be crucial. Intraoperative monitoring may include an arterial line because of the large blood loss and coexisting patient conditions. If central venous access is planned, consultation with the surgical team is important to avoid interfering with the surgical procedure. Temperature maintenance is important because hypothermia and vasoconstriction can be detrimental to free flap perfusion. Intraoperative tracheostomy may be required and should be performed only after reducing FiO to minimize 2 the risk of fire from electrocautery. In particular, micrognathia and retrognathia, macroglossia, and maxillary protrusion may lead to challenging mask ventilation and dif- ficulty with intubation. If these concerns arise, consideration should be given to securing the airway before inducing general anesthesia through fiberoptic intubation of the nose or mouth, or preoperative tracheostomy. Careful attention must be paid to make sure that the nasal cartilage does not have any pressure on it. Evaluation of the airway before extubation and emergence may raise concern for continued bleeding or airway edema, in which case extubation should be delayed. The cement interdigi- tates within the interstices of cancellous bone and strongly binds the prosthetic device to the patient’s bone. The resultant intramedullary hypertension (>500 mm Hg) can cause embolization of fat, bone marrow, cement, and air into the femoral venous channels. Residual methylmethacrylate monomer can produce vasodilation and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Clinical Manifestations of Bone Cement Implantation Hypoxia: Increased pulmonary shunt Hypotension Dysrhythmias, including heart block and sinus arrest Pulmonary hypertension: Increased pulmonary vascular resistance Decreased cardiac output. Inflation pressure is usually set about 100 mm Hg over the patient’s baseline systolic blood pressure. Prolonged inflation (>2 hr) routinely leads to transient muscle dysfunction from ischemia but may produce rhabdomyolysis or permanent peripheral nerve injury. Potential Problems Associated with Pneumatic Tourniquets Hemodynamic changes Arterial thromboembolism Pulmonary embolism Pain: The mechanism and neural pathways for the severe aching and burning sensation defy precise expla- nation. Tourniquet pain gradually becomes so severe over time that patients may require substantial supplemental analgesia, if not general anesthesia, despite a regional block that is adequate for surgical anesthesia. These metabolic alterations can cause an increase 2 2 in minute ventilation in a spontaneously breathing patient and, rarely, dysrhythmias. Fat embolism syndrome classically presents within 72 hours after long-bone or pelvic fracture, with the triad of dyspnea, confusion, and petechiae. Diagnosis The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is suggested by petechiae on the chest, upper extremities, axillae, and conjunctiva. Coagulation abnormalities such as thrombocytopenia or prolonged clotting times are occa- sionally present. Pulmonary involvement typically progresses from mild hypoxia and a normal chest radiograph to severe hypoxia or respiratory failure with chest radiography findings of diffuse patchy pulmonary opacity. Management Early stabilization of the fracture decreases the incidence of fat embolism syndrome and, in particular, reduces the risk of pulmonary complications. Supportive treatment consists of oxygen therapy with continuous positive airway pressure ventilation to prevent hypoxia. Additional risk factors include obesity, age older than 60 years, procedures lasting longer than 30 min, use of a tourniquet, lower extremity fracture, and immobilization for more than 4 days. Patients presenting with hip fractures are frequently dehydrated because of inadequate oral intake. Depending on the site of the hip fracture, occult blood loss may be significant and further compromise intravascular volume. Another characteristic of hip fracture patients is the frequent presence of preoperative hypoxia that may, at least in part, be caused by fat embolism; other factors can include bibasilar atelectasis from immobility, pulmonary congestion (and effusion) from congestive heart failure, or consolidation from infection. A neuraxial anesthetic technique, with or without concomitant general anesthesia, provides the additional advantage of postoperative pain control. Intrathecal opioids such as morphine can extend postoperative analgesia but require close postoperative monitoring for delayed respiratory depression in elderly patients. Undisplaced proximal femur fractures may be treated with percutaneous pinning or cannulated screw fixa- tion with the patient in the supine position. Hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement are longer, more invasive operations than other procedures. They are usually performed in the lateral decubitus position; are associated with greater blood loss; and potentially result in greater hemodynamic changes, particularly if cement is used. Consideration should be given to performing invasive hemodynamic monitoring and securing large-bore venous access for rapid transfusion. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease affecting the articular surface of one or more joints (most commonly the hips and knees). Atlantoaxial subluxation, which can be diagnosed radio- logically, may lead to protrusion of the odontoid process into the foramen magnum during intubation, compromising vertebral blood flow and compressing the spinal cord or brain stem. If atlantoaxial instability exceeds 5 mm, tracheal intubation should be performed before anesthetic induction with neck stabilization and fiberoptic guidance. Although the typical patient undergoing knee arthroscopy is often thought of as being a healthy young athlete, knee arthroscopies are frequently performed in elderly patients with multiple medical problems. Intraoperative Management A bloodless field greatly facilitates arthroscopic surgery.
Further assessment of bleeding requires a pelvic examination with a speculum and imaging studies such as ultrasound buy ibuprofen with mastercard, which need to be deferred until the woman can be evaluated in a hospital setting buy ibuprofen 600 mg low cost. It is important to not try to manually locate the source of vaginal bleeding 600 mg ibuprofen, because some conditions, such as placenta previa, could be worsened by blind probing. Management of a hemodynamically-unstable woman with vaginal bleeding during a fight involves supportive care and instructions to the crew that a diversion is strongly recommended. If intravenous tubing and fuids are provided in the in-fight emer- gency kit resuscitation, the volunteer responder can initiate their administration. It includes pathol- ogy of gynecologic origin as well as urologic, gastrointestinal, vascular, and muscu- loskeletal origin. For the purpose of this section, we will focus on pelvic pain of 10 Obstetrics and Gynecology Considerations 107 gynecologic origin, specifcally ectopic pregnancy (implantation of a pregnancy outside the uterine cavity) and ovarian torsion (twisting of the ovary on its vascular pedicle, restricting blood fow to the organ). The difference between these two might not be apparent during an in-fight emergency; however, requesting a careful menstrual history and noting a missed menstrual period should raise the possibility of pregnancy and thus ectopic pregnancy. The priority in this circumstance is to determine if a life-threatening (or, in the case of ovarian torsion, an organ-threatening) condition exists; if so, fight diversion should be recommended to the crew. The evaluation is similar to that described above for vaginal bleeding; however, it lacks assessment of external bleeding and requires the volunteer healthcare provider to consider internal abdominal bleeding. As mentioned above, a careful menstrual history will provide clues as to whether an ectopic pregnancy, and thus the possibility of intra-abdominal bleeding, is pos- sible. Additionally, previous ectopic pregnancy, reproductive tract surgery, and pel- vic infection all are risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . The physical examination should focus on assessment of hemodynamic instabil- ity, similar to the examination for vaginal bleeding. Gentle palpation of the abdo- men to ascertain if the pain localizes to a specifc quadrant of the abdomen can be helpful and also gives a sense of how much pain the woman is experiencing. If she is unable to tolerate even gentle palpation, an acute process might be occurring, so assessment in a medical facility with the capability to intervene surgically is indicated. Transvaginal procedures such as dilation and curettage or hysteros- copy are, in general, minor surgeries performed on an outpatient basis. Transabdominal procedures can be more complex and thus confer additional post- operative risk. All patients who have recently undergone surgery are at risk for several complications. In general, the major concerns after gynecologic surgery are bleeding, wound infection, and thromboembolic events. Most signifcant bleeding would occur in the immediate postoperative period and is thus not likely during a fight. Vaginal bleed- ing can occur remotely from a dilation and curettage procedure and, if present, would fall into the algorithm described above. Wound infections can occur long after surgery, possibly within a timeframe that could coincide with travel after surgery. Infections are not typically emergencies requiring diversion, other than necrotizing fasciitis, a bacterial infection that spreads quickly and can be life-threatening. Key features include tender, warm, red skin with pain out of proportion to touch, followed by a change to purple or grey with blistering and skin breakdown. Thromboembolism is the most likely postoperative complication and the most likely to require emergent intervention and fight diversion. Obstetric and gynecologic emergencies represent a small proportion of in-fight calls but a large number of fight diversions. A solid fund of knowledge, asking the right questions, and being prepared for emergency situations can decrease stress on the provider but, most importantly, be lifesaving for another traveler. The epidemiology of postpartum hemorrhage in a large, nationwide sample of deliveries. Cardiac arrest in pregnancy a scientifc statement from the American Heart Association. Longitudinal development of secondary sexual characteristics in girls and boys between ages 91/2 and 151/2 years. Change in follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol across the menopausal transition: effect of age at the fnal menstrual period. World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Relation between measured menstrual blood loss and patient’s subjective assessment of loss, duration of bleeding, number of sanitary towels used, uterine weight and endometrial surface area. Menorrhagia I: measured blood loss, clinical features, and outcome in women with heavy periods: a survey with follow-up data. Prediction of loca- tion of a symptomatic early gestation based solely on clinical presentation. Based on a review of 34 months of data from 5 domes- tic and international airlines, Peterson and colleagues  determined that the 3 most common situations prompting calls to a medical communications center were syn- cope (37%), respiratory problems (12%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (10%). The actual prevalence of infectious diseases among the 11,920 in-fight medical emergencies in Peterson’s study group was 2. Focusing on children, Moore and associates  found that infectious diseases, neurologic emergencies, and respira- tory tract problems were the leading reasons for medical consultation among the passengers transported by one airline between 1995 and 2002. Upper respiratory infections and infuenza are spread by coughing and sneez- ing; therefore, droplet precautions are warranted. Most airlines recirculate 50% of cabin air, passing it through high-effciency particulate air flters . Zitter and colleagues  found no difference in self-reported infection rates among passengers who had traveled in aircraft with that type of flter and those on air- craft with a single-pass cabin ventilation system. The long-held assumption that passengers seated more than 2 rows in front of or behind the primary patient have C. Nguyen a lower risk of being infected than those closer to the sick person is now being challenged . If possible, the potentially-infectious passenger should be separated from other passengers by 6 ft .
T e ssier P (1971) The deﬁnitive plastic surgical treatment of the jawline lower third facial aesthetic unit best order for ibuprofen. Art Facial Contouring severe facial deformities of craniofacial dysostosis: Crouzon’s and 153:165 Apert’s diseases buy ibuprofen discount. Sevin K buy ibuprofen without a prescription, Askar I, Saray A, Yormuk E (2000) Exposure of high- means of esthetic unities. Rev Bras Cir 33(6):527–533 density porous polyethylene (Medpor) used for contour restoration 10. Facial Lipofilling Domenico De Fazio and Laura Barberi 1 Introduction cess, in which we see opposing phenomena of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in adjacent zones. Osseous and carti- The face is considered the peculiar feature of each individual, laginous systems serve as supports; the musculoaponeurotic permitting his or her recognition, and is the ﬁrst element in superﬁcial system, by means of the interlobular ﬁbrous septa distinguishing people. It starts at the anterior part of the head in the adipose tissue, connects directly to the skin to ensure beginning from the forehead to the chin, including hairs, its stability. The support system relaxes with ageing, as we forehead, eyebrow, eyes, eyelids, nose, mouth, lips, teeth, see with the lower eyelid ectropion, a consequence of the skin, chin and the rest of the mandibular outline. The of expression, which everyone can use to communicate and support for the skin cover, assured by superﬁcial aponeurotic transmit sensations and emotions, and is what characterises system, lessens, creating a number of well-known folds and ourselves. Nevertheless, time, excessive weight loss, medical grooves connected to the ageing process . The central portion of the face, particularly, is the tures depending on the underlying bone skeleton, in combi- feature that immediately meets the eyes of the persons that nation with muscular, cartilaginous, adipose and cutaneous speak with us or look at us and is therefore our visiting card. With the current state-of-the-art plastic surgery, if well-proportionate face can transmit pleasance and harmony an individual is not satisﬁed with his or her own appearance, to the people who look at it; on the contrary, the zygoma not he or she can undergo treatments and surgeries to modify deﬁned or emptied, a look particularly marked by eye bags, that appearance. The face is composed of multiple structures transmits an impression of tiredness and carelessness. This new in doing so, we restitute a juvenile appearance to features description of the ligaments of the face and the fatty anatomy rendered heavy and fatigued by stress and relaxed or altered of the face allows a better understanding of the ageing pro- by defects that are present since birth . It is constituted, starting from below, by the chin, the lips Chirurgia Plastica e Ricostruttiva , Università di Siena , Siena , Italy surrounding the mouth, the philtrum of the upper lip, the © Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2016 1031 N. Barberi external nose, the cheeks, the zygoma, the eyes with eyelids mouth opening. It develops at the level of the contour of stomodeum (primitive mouth’s roof) . In fact, this region is furrowed by this depression, called the stomodeum, which is limited 3 Anatomy above by the frontonasal process, below by the ﬁst pharyn- geal arch and laterally by the two maxillary processes . The skull is divided in two portions: neurocranium and From these processes, the embryo’s face develops, splanchnocranium. The face massif (splanchnocranium) is formed by maxil- At the end of the fourth week, the two mandibular pro- lary, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, inferior turbinate, zygomatic, cesses fuse on the median line, constituting the chin and the vomer and mandibular bones. The skull gives insertion to various muscle groups At the end of the sixth week, the two nasal median pro- (Fig. Lateral nasal processes, on the contrary, will form the nasal • Extrinsic muscles originate outside the skull (neck, trunk) wings and the nasolacrimal duct . The two maxillary processes will give rise to three differ- • Intrinsic muscles are entirely located in the skull, where ent fusions: they fuse with intermaxillary process, forming they have both their origins and their insertion. At their periphery they constituted by skeletal or masticatory muscles and mimic fuse with the underlying mandibular processes reducing the the expression of muscles. Frontalis Eyebrow corrugator Orbicularis oculi Temporalis Nasalis Canine Zygomaticus Buccinator Masseter Platysma Orbicularis oris Triangular Fig. Since then, the technique of lipoﬁlling has those of the ear pavilion, the eyeball, the middle ear and the gained widespread diffusion, still keeping some shortcom- tongue. The skin covers all the muscles, fat tissue, vessels and The injection of fat tissue taken from the patient is noth- nerves. The vessels are quite numerous, since the face is ing less than an autologous tissue graft. Since there is no vascular connection, the tissue, the underlying muscles and the deep bony planes’ set- tissue transferred can survive only if it comes in contact with ting; moreover, there is the presence of folds and expression well-vascularised tissues that initially will feed it by imbibi- grooves. Large These zones, so peculiar, are termed “facial aesthetic amounts of fat injected do not allow all the adipocytes to units” and include the frontal, palpebral and malar zone; the come in contact with the receiving tissue, and they will nec- naso-labial grooves’ zone; the nasal, labial, mental, submen- essarily develop necrosis. Facial lipoﬁlling is a technique tal, supraorbital and orbital zone; and the cheek zone, in turn that allows us to obtain more deﬁnition in given facial zones, divided into the infraorbital, zygomatic, buccal and parotid which for various reasons may have lost their original zones. With time, results became better, but only in 1997, with Sidney Coleman, that the piv- otal turn occurred . For the face, the fat tissue is The idea of enlarging some bodily parts using adipose tis- harvested after inﬁltration with Klein solution, through a sue is not a new one: in 1919 appeared the ﬁrst paper on the 3-mm tube, which has a point particularly designed to avoid behaviour of autologous fat tissue injected to correct the damaging the adipocytes. Barberi are not damaged but remain intact and can thus survive in their new location . This dense tunnel net creates a veritable “structure” in multiple layers, hence the term “lipostructure” [5–13]. The main indication of this technique is facial rejuvena- tion and defect correction, which are fulﬁlled modifying facial contour and increasing the volume of some parts . This technique has many advantages: it is a less invasive procedure, thanks to the Coleman cannulae; a more natural result is obtained and the absence of rejection because it can Fig. Another peculiarity of this procedure is that it can be repeated any time it is desired to increase the volume, when the results of the ﬁrst session are suboptimal . Another technique is the one developed by Carraway, which differs from the previous way the harvested tissue is processed. It is more practical and quick, since the tissue is simply washed with Lactated Ringer’s or saline in a speciﬁc net strainer, before being transferred in the syringes for grafting (Fig. This system allows preparation of bigger quantities in lesser time compared to the Coleman’s tech- nique . A disadvantage of these techniques, on the other hand, is that the grafted fat tissue unavoidably undergoes a certain resorption. The author’s experience, gained in many years in many anatomical regions of the body , allows us to afﬁrm Fig. A completely different situation is that of the lips, where the initial resorp- syringe, which the operator uses in a way that does not dam- tion is much more than in other facial districts. The common goal of all the different harvesting tech- The fat tissue harvested is subsequently centrifuged for niques is to obtain small particles of fat tissue, or groups of about 3 min at 3,000 rpm (Fig.
Although this is not the traditional expression for the range generic 400 mg ibuprofen with visa, it is intuitive to imagine that knowledge of the minimum and maximum values in this data set would convey more information than knowing only that the range is equal to 52 cheap 400mg ibuprofen otc. An infinite number of distributions generic 400 mg ibuprofen with amex, each with quite different minimum and maximum values, may have a range of 52. The Variance When the values of a set of observations lie close to their mean, the dispersion is less than when they are scattered over a wide range. Since this is true, it would be intuitively appealing if we could measure dispersion relative to the scatter of the values about their mean. In computing the variance of a sample of values, for example, we subtract the mean from each of the values, square the resulting differences, and then add up the squared differences. This sum of the squared deviations of the values from their mean is divided by the sample size, minus 1, to obtain the sample variance. Letting s2 stand for the sample variance, the procedure may be written in notational form as follows: Pn 2 ð xi À x 2 i¼1 s ¼ (2. It may seem nonintuitive at this stage that the differences in the numerator be squared. It is easy to imagine that if we compute the difference of each data point in the distribution from the mean value, half of the differences would be positive and half would be negative, resulting in a sum that would be zero. A variance of zero would be a noninformative measure for any distribution of numbers except one in which all of the values are the same. Therefore, the square of each difference is used to ensure a positive numerator and hence a much more valuable measure of dispersion. The sum of the deviations of the values from their mean is equal to zero, as can be shown. If, then, we know the values of n À 1 of the deviations from the mean, we know the nth one, since it is automatically determined because of the necessity for all n values to add to zero. From a practical point of view, dividing the squared differences by n À 1 rather than n is necessary in order to use the sample variance in the inference procedures discussed later. Students interested in pursuing the matter further at this time should refer to the article by Walker (2). When we compute the variance from a finite population of N values, the procedures outlined above are followed except that we subtract m from each x and divide by N rather than N À 1. To obtain a measure of dispersion in original units, we merely take the square root of the variance. In general, the standard deviation of a sample is given by vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ u n uP 2 u xi À x pﬃﬃﬃﬃ t 2 i¼1 s ¼ s ¼ (2. The Coefﬁcient of Variation The standard deviation is useful as a measure of variation within a given set of data. When one desires to compare the dispersion in two sets of data, however, comparing the two standard deviations may lead to fallacious results. For example, we may wish to know, for a certain population, whether serum cholesterol levels, measured in milligrams per 100 ml, are more variable than body weight, measured in pounds. Furthermore, although the same unit of measurement is used, the two means may be quite different. If we compare the standard deviation of weights of first-grade children with the standard deviation of weights of high school freshmen, we may find that the latter standard deviation is numerically larger than the former, because the weights themselves are larger, not because the dispersion is greater. Such a measure is found in the coefficient of variation, which expresses the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean. Solution: A comparison of the standard deviations might lead one to conclude that the two samples possess equal variability. If we compute the coefficients of variation, however, we have for the 25-year-olds 10 C:V: ¼ 100 6:9% 145 and for the 11-year-olds 10 C:V: ¼ 100 12:5% 80 If we compare these results, we get quite a different impression. It is clear from this example that variation is much higher in the sample of 11-year-olds than in the sample of 25-year-olds. Since the coefficient of variation is independent of the scale of measurement, it is a useful statistic for comparing the variability of two or more variables measured on different scales. We could, for example, use the coefficient of variation to compare the variability in weights of one sample of subjects whose weights are expressed in pounds with the variability in weights of another sample of subjects whose weights are expressed in kilograms. Computer Analysis Computer software packages provide a variety of possibilit- ies in the calculation of descriptive measures. N stands for the number of data observations, Ã and N stands for the number of missing values. Percentiles and Quartiles The mean and median are special cases of a family of parameters known as location parameters. These descriptive measures are called location parameters because they can be used to designate certain positions on the horizontal axis when the distribution of a variable is graphed. In that sense the so-called location parameters “locate” the distribution on the horizontal axis. For example, a distribution with a median of 100 is located to the right of a distribution with a median of 50 when the two distributions are graphed. The 10th percentile, for example, is designated P10, the 70th is designated P70, and so on. The 50th percentile (the median) is referred to as the second or middle quartile and written Q2, and the 75th percentile is referred to as the third quartile, Q3. When we wish to find the quartiles for a set of data, the following formulas are used: 9 n þ 1 > Q1 ¼ th ordered observation >> 4 >> >> = 2 n þ 1 n þ 1 Q2 ¼ ¼ th ordered observation (2. It should also be noted that though there is a universal way to calculate the median (Q2), there are a variety of ways to calculate Q1, and Q2 values. For a discussion of the various methods for calculating quartiles, interested readers are referred to the article by Hyndman and Fan (3). Interquartile Range As we have seen, the range provides a crude measure of the variability present in a set of data. A disadvantage of the range is the fact that it is computed from only two values, the largest and the smallest. A similar measure that reflects the variability among the middle 50 percent of the observations in a data set is the interquartile range. Since such statements are rather vague, it is more informative to compare the interquartile range with the range for the entire data set. Kurtosis Just as we may describe a distribution in terms of skewness, we may describe a distribution in terms of kurtosis. A distribution, in comparison to a normal distribution, may possesses an excessive proportion of observations in its tails, so that its graph exhibits a flattened appearance.