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This chapter describes the steps that should be taken in planning the outbreak investigation and describing the outbreak purchase pilex paypal. Outbreak description may also involve preliminary components of environmental investigation and laboratory investigation order generic pilex, processes which are discussed in Chapter 9 and Chapter 10 generic 60caps pilex free shipping, respectively. Step 1: Compile information collected Before convening the first outbreak team meeting, compile all the routinely-collected information on the cases that have been initially reported, including incomplete information on suspected cases. It is essential to keep EpiSurv as up-to-date as possible for local and national monitoring of outbreaks by a number of agencies. Identify the common features about the cases that suggest that they are involved in the outbreak. Review routinely-collected information about any potential environmental source of the outbreak. This information may be in the form of environmental health reports from particular food premises. Step 2: Develop a case definition A case definition is a standardised description of the disease associated with an outbreak which, for the purposes of the investigation, will be used to distinguish between cases and non-cases. The case definition should not be used as a basis for clinical diagnosis, treatment or other management of individuals. The primary objective in developing a case definition is to include as many individuals as possible who are likely to be part of the outbreak (sensitivity), while excluding as many as possible who are not likely to be part of the outbreak (specificity). The case definition should be developed by reviewing details of cases reported to date. This initial case definition need not be fixed, and may be revised later in the investigation. Ideally, all cases require laboratory test results confirming the presence of a pathogen or toxin causing illness. In practice, many investigations include a mix of clinical and confirmed cases a further description of the characteristics of the cases using: time (time period during which the diagnosis occurred) place (geographical area) and, sometimes, persons (population group of interest). The case definition must not include characteristics that relate to the possible outbreak source. For an unequivocally identified disease, a standard case definition such as that found in the Manual 38 for Public Health Surveillance in New Zealand or some modification of this definition, may be used or adapted. Examples of case definitions used in reported outbreak investigations are listed below. Common event Case defined as any individual who attended an event, for example, a party, and within 48 hours of attending the event developed either diarrhoea (defined as at least three loose motions in a 24-hour 2, 13 period) or at least two of the following: stomach pains, fever, vomiting or nausea. Dispersed Case defined as a patient with the outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella Montevideo isolated 14 from a stool sample collected in July. Community-wide, person to person Case defined as an individual of the particular immigrant ethnicity who had either a positive hepatitis A IgM antibody or a raised serum alanine aminotransferase and a consistent clinical illness (jaundice, 16 nausea, anorexia or fever). Institutional A case was defined as any resident of the nursing home with either an alteration in bowel habit (resulting in at least one loose stool) or vomiting between 4 and 7 June, inclusive. Step 3: Find other potential cases Identify additional cases by searching for people who might meet the case definition. This step is undertaken to: ensure recognition of the true scale of the outbreak minimise the bias that could result from an investigation focusing only on cases identified early in the outbreak provide more statistical power to identify risk factors. Do not, however, excessively slow the investigation while trying to find every last case. Case-finding strategies for common event outbreaks Case finding strategies for common event outbreaks can be tightly focused on the event itself. Try to locate a list of individuals who attended the event associated with the outbreak. If a list is unavailable, contact the individual responsible for organising the event, and try to obtain a verbal list of names with contact details. If neither approach is fruitful, interview cases identified for names of other individuals attending the event. Retain names and contact details of all individuals linked to common event outbreaks, whether cases or not, for the duration of the investigation. Case finding in institutional outbreaks Identify other cases in institutional outbreaks by interviewing staff members responsible for other subsections of the institution (i. Other case-finding strategies On occasion, it may be appropriate to advertise for cases through the media (e. This method, however, should be used very carefully because it is likely to identify a large number of people with illnesses that are unrelated to the outbreak, details included in the newspaper article or radio announcement may bias reports of illness, and it may create unnecessary alarm. Step 4: Collect information about cases Detailed information on all cases involved in an outbreak should be collected using a structured interview based on a standardised questionnaire. The questionnaire should cover disease manifestations, patient characteristics and exposures that may be sources of infection. Appendix 2 contains detailed information about developing questionnaires and appropriate interview techniques, but the emphasis at this stage of the investigation should be on rapidly developing and administering a simple questionnaire designed to elicit information to identify possible hypotheses. Themplates include the Common Event Foodborne Outbreak Questionnaire and the General Food and Waterborne Disease Outbreak Questionnaire for dispersed outbreaks of food or waterborne disease. There is also a more recently developed questionnaire for use in food-associated outbreaks predominantly involving young children. Each of these questionnaires may be adapted to the circumstances surrounding the outbreak. Information gathered from interviews should be combined with other sources of information, such as medical records and laboratory reports, if appropriate. If the outbreak has occurred in a hospital or continuing-care institution, it may be more appropriate to go directly to the medical records than to interview patients. Information collected from a review of medical records should also be collected and recorded in a standardised manner. Before starting case interviews, consider whether the investigation is likely to require a full analytic investigation stage. If so, it may be appropriate to proceed directly to the analytic investigation as this will avoid having to interview the cases twice.
Thus buy pilex in india, a thorough assessment cheap pilex 60 caps on-line, including a physical examination and complete history of the patient order pilex visa, is vital for ensuring proper diagnosis and treatment of an individual with thyroid disease (Goolsby & Blackwell, 2004). However, remission rates are variable and relapses are frequent when antithyroid drugs are used alone (Goolsby & Blackwell, 2004). Some experts recommend the addition of T3 (liothyronine; name brand Cytomel) for its antidepressant effects (Dayan, 2001; Joffe, 2006). Effective treatment of thyroid disease depends upon an accurate diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism (Cappola & Cooper, 2015; Goolsby & Blackwell, 2004; Heinrich & Grahm, 2003; McDermott & Ridgway, 2001). Regular monitoring of the thyroid patient’s symptoms and interpreting blood work are necessary for determining treatment effectiveness. Thus, in cases in which physicians do not use all three main thyroid function tests, thyroid patients often experience chronic or worsening symptoms (Bunevicius & Prange, 2006; Heinrich & Grahm, 2003; McDermott & Ridgway, 2001). Diagnostic and treatment challenges related to thyroid disease underscore the importance of an effective doctor-patient relationship (Copeland et al. Female thyroid patients’ experiences of treatment and the doctor- patient relationship might be best understood through the lens of social constructivism and feminism, as both worldviews emphasize individuals’ experiences in social contexts (Hearn, 2009; Docherty & McColl, 2003). Conceptual Framework In this study, data interpretation was guided by social constructionism and feminist theory. Themes related to the culture of the medical profession, diagnostic bias, and gender differences in communication—all of which are discussed later in this 29 chapter—were identified. Social Constructionism Lupton (2003) and Martin and Peterson (2009) described the trajectory in medical thought by which social constructionism arose as a response to the biomedical model (p. This model located disease in specific parts of the body and reduced medical concerns to mechanistic processes. In the 1950s, as a response to the biomedical model, Talcott Parsons developed the functionalist perspective, in which the role of a sick individual is seen as a social response to the deviant place in society occupied by persons with poor health (Martin & Peterson, 2009). In the functionalist perspective, patients desire to be accepted by society and therefore seek verification from doctors that they are not malingering (Lupton, 2003). Although Parson’s work is acclaimed for identifying the role of society in understanding illness, the functionalist perspective has been criticized for characterizing patients as passive and grateful, while doctors were portrayed as universally competent and altruistic. In addition, according to Lupton (2003), the functionalist viewpoint did not take into consideration the potential for conflict within the doctor-patient relationship. The social constructionist model emerged in the 1980s in response to these criticisms. In this perspective, all medical issues, including health, chronic illnesses, and medical care, are socially constructed facts that are subject to varying degrees of consensus and interpretation due to cultural factors and social norms (Docherty & McColl, 2003; Fernandes et al. In other words, in the management of illness, both the patient and the doctor are influenced by their individual beliefs and experiences and the society in which they live. Thus, the social constructionist perspective is appropriate to the qualitative study of health and disease, which takes as its data the personal experiences, perceptions, observations, and narratives of individuals (Creswell, 2007; Hearn, 2009). The logical positivist perspective, commonly used in quantitative research, involves an assumption that there are stable, social facts with a single reality, separated from the feelings and beliefs of individuals (Creswell, 2007). In other words, regardless of how an individual perceives an event, only one interpretation of that event is considered to be appropriate or based on “truth” (Patton, 2002). For example, if an individual is diagnosed with a chronic illness and the medical profession contends that such a diagnosis should have a minimal emotional impact on the individual, for him or her to react in any other manner (e. In contrast, social constructionism, commonly used in qualitative research, is based on the belief that multiple realities are socially constructed through individual (constructivism) and collective (constructionism) perceptions of the same situation 31 (Patton, 2002). For example, on the individual (constructivist) level, one person might view a chronic illness diagnosis as manageable, while another person might view that same diagnosis as emotionally devastating. These individual perceptions are influenced by the collective (constructionist) framework (e. Within the social constructionist perspective, both of these interpretations would be considered valid. Docherty and McColl (2003) noted that a social constructionist approach takes patients’ interpretations of their illness experience into account. These interpretations are relevant because they influence the patients’ feelings, reactions, and behaviors. Thus, the female body and bodily illnesses take on certain meanings in a social context, and these meanings influence patients’ interpretations of the illness experience (Fernandes et al. Findlay (1993) also argued that social construction is an important source of knowledge in the fields of science and medicine. However, according to Findlay, the technical nature of scientific and medical knowledge often results in perspectives that neglect the social contexts and construction of this knowledge. More specifically, diagnostic and treatment decisions tend to be based on “objective evidence” of disease 32 (e. Furthermore, competing perspectives among pharmaceutical, medical, and insurance companies influence diagnostic and treatment decisions (Hearn, 2009). In order to underscore the social and political aspects of medical knowledge and practice, Findlay (1993) argued that biomedicine defines disease as a deviation from a particular standard viewed as biological normalcy. The implications of this can be seen, for example, in the way in which physicians treated female fertility issues in the 1950s, which often assumed a specific, socially constructed set of values (Findlay, 1993). Findlay cited descriptions of the hormonal systems of males and females from this period, noting that libido was emphasized in males and reproduction was emphasized in females, and argued that acknowledgment of hormones in females was restricted to those directly related to reproduction. Feminists contend that women continue to be viewed by the medical profession as being at the mercy of their reproductive hormones (Fernandes et al. This perception could have a significant impact on women with thyroid disease because of the psychological symptoms resulting from the hormone imbalances involved in thyroid dysfunction (Shimabukuro, 2008). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Thext Revision (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), several of the most common cognitive, mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders might be best explained by thyroid dysfunction. Yet, there are pervasive beliefs among physicians that women over-report pain and that vague 33 symptoms are the results of mental, rather than physical, illness (Chrisler, 2001; Hoffmann & Tarzian, 2001). Viewed from a social constructionist perspective, these examples show how socio-cultural constructs, perspectives, and attitudes can influence the field of medicine. Feminism Despite efforts to incorporate gender-sensitive practices into the field of medicine, historically-based knowledge and beliefs about women persist (Chrisler, 2001; Hoffmann & Tarzian, 2001; Sherwin, 1999). Thus, the relevance of feminism to the current treatment of women in the medical field might be best understood from a historical th th review of oppressive practices. In the 19 and early 20 centuries, women’s bodies were viewed as unstable and their minds were viewed as fragile (Fernandes et al.
Frequency of monogenic obesi- in children and adults with severe cases of obesity buy pilex from india. Higher growth and higher bone G protein-coupled receptors: abnormalities in signal transmission purchase generic pilex online. Currently buy pilex in india, a number of clinical studies are con- Regular exercise can cause increased energy con- ducted on substances that can be used as medica- sumption, cause lose weight and prevent obesity. Due to Mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 the fact that the receptors are in the brain, such drugs Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is a hor- should have a good penetration of the blood-brain mone released from the pituitary in hypovolemia or barrier. Second messenger activates protein of large particles and a long N-terminal domain. The kinase A, which stimulates aquaporin type 2 to interaction of vasopressin with receptor results in move to the basement membrane of the follicle cells. They are tetrameric proteins that form in the cell, and transcellular transport, then with aquaporin cell membrane of the renal tubule channels with 3 and 4, the flow to the interstitial nephron. In obtaining a suitable concentration of urine, vaso- the inactive state, aquaporin 2 is arranged in vesicles pressin detaches from receptor, and aquaporins 2 are inside the cell. After connection to the vasopressin endocytosed or are excreted with the urine (32). In consequence, no water resorp- ed into 15 types within the 4 classes, taking into tion leads to polyuria (33). The process is illustrated account the impact of specific disorders on the sev- in Figure 1. Their role is to join and sta- centrated despite normal hormone level in the blood. In almost 90% of tion with other peptides and assistance for transport cases is inherited and passed on as a recessive disor- to the other places in the cell. These are coperons are small lipophilic compounds, which mutations in the gene encoding aquaporin 2, which penetrate through the membrane into the cell and result in the molecules that are not displaced from bind to the structurally modified, as a result of muta- the cell membrane vesicles to the collecting tubule. This 15 to 20 liters of diluted urine per day) and noctur- mechanism is presented in Figure 2. The structure include dryness and loss of elasticity of the skin and of pharmacoperons affect its efficiency, which dark circles under the eyes. In the case of giving up determines the selectivity of the target protein, treatment, among young people there is a distur- severity of the damage and the location of the muta- bance in the development and reduction of growth. So far, there was only one clinical trial age, mental retardation and problems with growth in which five patients were treated with an antago- and development (33). Vaptans class of drugs (for example and beginning of the treatment can prevent the Tolvaptan) are used in the treatment of hyperna- expansion of mental retardation. Extracellular domain binding addition, elderly patients may have difficulty in the calcium ions and other cations is characteristic for sensation of thirst or in maintaining urine. The result of activating mutation in the calcium ological level, receptor stimulates parathyroid cells receptor is its increased sensitivity to calcium ions. This hor- Therefore, the receptor does not respond properly to mone enhances calcium ions level, by affecting the the reduced concentration of calcium ions in serum bone structure, the glomerular reabsorption from the and does not stimulate secretion of parathyroid hor- initial and calcitriol synthesis in the small intestine mone (17). Children during fever may have seizures contribute to the formation of disorders manifested and be sensitive. The action of this class of drugs is to increase inflammation and allergic reactions in the course of the sensitivity of the receptor to calcium ions, which diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The drug was adminis- mainly mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and tered at a dose of 30 mg to 60 mg once a day for macrophages. They cause bron- calcium homeostasis, which was maintained up to choconstriction and vasodilation. In three increased vascular permeability and exudation of related patients, complete disappearance of the macromolecules, swelling of the tissue is also symptoms of hypercalcemia has been shown. Mutations in genes encoding leukotriene of the patients experienced adverse reactions. Their presence also affects the Arg315Lys receptor variant and reduced agonist course of the mechanism of action of drugs, thereby potential for Met201Wal. Paradoxically, only constituting an important reference point for the fur- Met201Wal variant was observed in people with ther search for more effective pharmacologically atopy or asthma. These are lungs, pancreas, small intestine, and in a small dopaminergic, serotonergic, muscarinic and opioids extent in other organs. Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in are widely distributed in most inflammatory cells, the central nervous system. To a properties on the two groups: D1, which includes lesser extent, it is located in the spinal cord, kidneys the D1 and D5 receptors and D2 receptors including and other organs (39). Drugs for Parkinsonís dis- leukotriene interaction with receptor is mediated by ease are dopaminergic receptors agonists, and in G protein. An example is bromocriptine, which the treatment of atopic asthma blocking leukotrienes antagonist acting to D4 receptor is two times weak- were used primarily (41). Pharmacogenetics research on response after joining agonist and their association serotonin receptors may contribute to the improve- with asthma. His265Arg and Ser268Pro, that may change the parathyroid hormone or inhibition of it secretion. Polymorphic variants receptors binding to many, different ligands, which can initiate disease or be a potential risk to their include, inter alia, hormones, neurotransmitters, and development. It is characterized by abnormal protein, which upon activation changes its confor- process of collecting and concentrate urine in the mation. They also interact mutations, which in different ways influence the with a large group of drugs inter alia in the treatment activity of the receptor (26). Mutations, which occur at to inflammatory mediators, play an important role in different levels of receptor maturation, initiate allergic reactions. This genes encoding these receptors cause many changes receptor is responsible for the process of seeing. Identify typical signs and symptoms of viral diseases spread by airborne transmission 3. Identify typical signs and symptoms of common food- borne and waterborne viral diseases 3. Nearly half of Americans sufer from at least one chronic condition, and the number is growing. Chronic diseases—such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, respiratory diseases, arthritis, obesity, and oral dis- eases—can lead to hospitalization, long-term disability, reduced 1 quality of life and, often, death.
The ability of arts and culture to draw connections to a particular place order pilex 60caps with visa, unite communities and mobilize individuals in support of common causes directly affects community health generic 60 caps pilex with mastercard. Similarly cheap pilex express, the ability of arts and culture to foster creativity, inspire refection and draw out an individual’s interpretation of his or her world directly infuence personal health and well-being. Arts’ and health’s common impact on both the community and the individual is the clear point from which their intersection grows. Yet, on a deeper level, the arts and health intersection also grows from the inherent creativity that lives within the mind of every person. It lives in the doctor who is conducting clinical research in pursuit of a new treatment. It lives in patients and their caregivers who are trying to make sense of a diagnosis. The creative process ignites our passions, drives our perspectives of the world, and pushes us to challenge accepted conventions. In the end, the arts and health intersection is founded on the use of creativity to gain insights about what it is to be human – to experience life from birth to death. This shared purpose is what ultimately eases the tension between art and science, as each offers a different, but inseparable, path to improving the conditions inherent to our common humanity. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 66 Creative Minds in Medicine case study Billy Bear’s Honey Chase Billy Bear’s Honey Chase Main Menu Screen capture courtesy of the Cleveland Institute of Art Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 67 Creative Minds in Medicine designing for the future The words “computer game” may mean pretty much the same thing as “lurid murder” to a lot of people. Nearly all screen games seem to involve bloody, nonstop shootings, beatings or explosions, usually carried out with high-tech metal weapons the size of Godzilla. The Cleveland Institute of Art Associate Professor of Biomedical Art and Chair of the Game Design program makes a point now of encouraging her students to design nonviolent entertainments. She’s even started revising the curriculum standards for the program to encourage courses focused on Games for Change, aiming for game design that promotes learning instead of virtual violence. So when Jared Bendis, Co-Owner of the app development company Lemming Labs Limited, needed an artist to design the images for an application that teaches sick children how to manage their pain, Almon came to mind faster than a wand comes to hand in a Harry Potter game. Bendis calls her an amazing illustrator who “came in and added the favor” to the game app, a task that perfectly married the skills and benefts of art with the goals of community health. What the app needed frst was a metaphor, explains Bendis, manager/designer for the project. Because its purpose is to teach young children timing and strategy in the context of their pain management – to develop a sense of timing and understand the nature of how best to plan and use any relief that can be afforded – the game had to have a premise that paralleled the situations and decisions children would need to face, but did so in an appealing, entertaining way. Bendis and the app team thought up just the thing: a little cartoon-bear hero named Billy who must evade a bunch of bees to get to the honey pots they guard. Drawn in bright colors by Almon, with funny expressions and actions, Billy and the bees invite kids into a cheerful, understandable place where confict is mild and comical and vying for the prize feels exciting, but not scary. Once the app team knew what the game would be about and how it would work, Almon created sketches of the characters, props such as Billy’s shield, and backdrops, as well as all title screens. While she developed the art, Bendis built the computer program using temporary pictures that he replaced with Almon’s images as she completed them. Then they had to test the game to make sure it worked properly and to make sure they hadn’t left out any features or functions. Because young Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 68 Creative Minds in Medicine children have less eye-hand coordination than older ones, the game needed simple controls: Players merely tilt the screen to move Billy Bear around the bees, somewhat in the same way that players of the classic game Labyrinth tilt a wooden board to move a marble through a maze. Almon and Bendis did not want the game to be violent or upsetting in any way, but knew it would have to offer challenges, setbacks and rewards if it were to be interesting for kids to play. So when a player lets Billy Bear bump against a bee, the bee buzzes, but Billy doesn’t get stung – instead, he gets stuck in the honey and loses stepping stones. Billy Bear teaches Getting around the bees takes skill, but players have a special power:When they really, truly judgment. But most need to use it, they can press a button and become temporarily immune to the bees, giving important, it’s fun them and Billy a chance to move through the and kids – sick or swarm without penalty. But they have to take into account that once they use the power, it well – like it. When players decide that they need to use the special power, they press a green, glowing button that Almon has designed to look exactly like the buttons on the pain management machine. With choices such as these, Almon and the app team have created an experience about cute, age-appropriate characters through whom children can test their abilities enjoyably. Though the little players’ gaming mistakes do have consequences – an important learning theme – they can make them without the psychological threat of suffering anything really frightening, notes Bendis. It may also be creating an industry: Bendis says the game has won interest from other members of the local medical community who are starting to understand that scientifc goals can be achieved more effectively through interactive and incentive based learning. Kids are drawn to the Billy Bear game because his cuteness taps a part of the human brain that triggers good feelings. She notices that doctors who were once content with a line drawing now want fully rendered, digital drawings and 3D interactive images because they want clarity and visual impact on their patients and colleagues. Such apps may also be the future of arts-related therapies and patient education, says Billy Bear team member Anne Stormorken, a University Hospitals critical-care pediatrician. Though a pain-management app is a brand-new concept, it’s logical that children could learn this way, she says. Says Stormorken, “Any game that they play, any distraction, has been shown to help manage pain. Novak, Assessing the Intrinsic Impacts of a Live Performance (San Francisco: WolfBrown, 2007); and Kevin F. Refections on understandings of arts practices in healthcare contexts,” Arts & Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice 3, no. Camic, “Playing in the Mud: Health Psychology, the Arts and Creative Approaches to Health Care,” Journal of Health Psychology 13, no. Anderson, “Outside looking in: observations on medical education since the Flexner Report,” Medical Education 45, no. Malchiodi, “Expressive Therapies: History, Theory, and Practice,” in Expressive Therapies, ed. Eisen, Deborah Owen, Rana Zadeh, and Robyn Bajema, “Effect of visual art on patient anxiety and agitation in a mental health facility and implications for the business case,” Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 18, no. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 72 Creative Minds in Medicine End Notes 39 See Roger S. Ulrich, “Effects of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes,” International Academy for Design and Health (2000), http://www.